Masters of War


Just to record one set of those 3am thoughts.

Thinking about peace and how unobtainable it appears to be.

How wars over the centuries kept getting bigger nad bigger. More and more expensive.

Of the billions which are spent every year on weapons. Both in the purchasing and in the development of them.

bowsOf how stones gave way to clubs which became passé when spears were developed. These were supplanted by bows and war-axes and swords over millenia. Copper, Bronze and finally Iron led the way into technological wars. Eventually cannons were invented. Up until now all that was necessary to equip an army for war was a competent blacksmith or two. Now, chemistry and ironmongery had to be combined and this required more finance than the average robber baron or war lord could afford.

Bankers began to finance wars for the Kings and Princes who became their clients. Sometimes the bankers would finance both sides of a conflict because they were not concerned with who won, but with who could pay. By backing both sides, they ensured they would finish with a larger pile of gold.

The number of potential combatants shrank as empires expanded as did the number of bankers because they were also in a war of their own. One fought with balance sheets, assassinations and takeovers.

So  much for mankind’s habit of war. Hundreds of Millions of people killed, a few people gaining political power and a few banking families gaining in more wealth than the average person could dream of.

Then came 1914.

Things began to accelerate. Chemistry, physics and innovative metal working all combined to make weapons unbelievably deadly. bombWorld War One was fought with the strategies of the previous three centuries using the weapons of the 20th century. The carnage was indescribable. There was a change in the strategies of the 2nd World War but weapons development continued and the war was ended with an incredulous world looking at images of the beginning of the Nuclear Age.

The bankers, and the munitions makers, were not too concerned because they were still making profits hand over fist from both sides of every conflict. The Korean War came and  not exactly went. The Vietnam War happened, just to test both Russian and American weapons developments.

Then we, the average people, saw something new. We saw the arrival of Terrorism. It became a noun to be feared. Terrorism and insurgency became the new form of war.

Because the war profiteers who had always been able to stay safe, realised they were no longer able to control where the killing would happen. Nuclear weapons caused too much damage. They could even wipe out entire banking organisations, entire countries, entire governments. Wiping out all those lovely profits.

And so war has been deliberately changed.

War has again become the province of the War Lord. Of the leaders of groups smaller than country-size. Each with an agenda to suit a group of unwitting followers. Whether that agenda is religious or territorial is irrelevant. Each group must be armed with weaponry up to but not including the too-dangerous nuclear weapons.

The profiteers are back in a business environment they can understand and control. One where they can remain safe. Those pesky scientists who opened the unwelcome genii’s bottle of nuclear bombs have been diverted to a new playground; space.

It is so easy to keep groups of terrorists appearing, apparently out of nowhere. All that is needed is to keep them buying arms. Early reports of the ISIS invasion of Iraq have reported on the hundreds of millions of dollars stolen from the banks in the over-run towns and cities. No prizes for knowing where that cash is headed.

The same has been happening for decades in Africa. Blood diamonds, kidnappings, sudden eruptions of violence all profiting a new group who then spend their wealth on weapons. All sorts of weapons, just so long as the range of their destruction is limited.

And the profiteers stay safe. The 1% of the 1% we think rule us are, in turn, ruled by that very small group of the Masters of War who will soon own the world.

But in the wings is an unc0ntrollable China – - -

 

 

Everything Old is New Again #3


When President Obama announced his intention to remain a player in the Asian Hemisphere in May 2012, I wrote of how politicians do not run the world.

How the world is run by secretive backroom bureaucrats in departments similar to our “Foreign Affairs”.

How they have become the One World Government all the Conspiracy Theorists warn us of.

Every now and then accidents happen and they briefly appear in the light, as has happened this week with “Prisoner X”.

Using “Trove” I was looking through old editions of “The Argus“, a now defunct Melbourne Daily.

In the issue of Saturday 10 February 1940, before Japan entered WW2, this cartoon appeared.

oldisnew3

Because of my position in time I immediately thought of a USA vs China problem but then I realised it is actually Japan on the other end of the rope of “Good Relations”. Just as today, America and China are on opposite ends of a similar rope of Trading Relations. Each country needs the other to survive economically.

My perspective suddenly began to jump backwards and forwards as I read this John Garnaut article in The Age of 16th Feb 2013.

In part it reads, “WITHIN two decades the United States will be forced out of the western Pacific, says a senior Chinese military officer, amid concerns that increasingly militarised great-power rivalry could lead to war.

Senior Colonel Liu Mingfu’s. . . . . .   interpretation of one facet of what the new Chinese leader, Xi Jinping, calls ”a new type of great-power relationship” adds to the uncertainty and anxiety surrounding China’s strategic ambitions.

Concern about China’s strategic ambitions has grown since last year’s Chinese occupation of islands administered by the Philippines in the South China Sea and, particularly, China’s continuing brinkmanship with Japan and its security guarantor, the US, in the East China Sea.Japanese leaders have accused China of locking weapons-guiding radars on Japanese targets – which China denies – while Western military sources say Chinese planes, ships and submarines have challenged Japanese-controlled waters and airspace around the Senkaku Islands.

Some security analysts say Australian political leaders are in public denial about the stakes involved and invidious choices the nation may have to face.

”It’s the most dangerous strategic crisis that the US has faced – that the world has faced – since the end of the Cold War,” said Hugh White, former deputy secretary of the Department of Defence.

China and Japan, he said, were drifting closer to a war that could draw in the US. ”This makes rather a nonsense of the mantra we hear both from Gillard and Abbott that ‘we don’t have to choose between the US and China’,” he said.

The cartoon above was published just 21 months before Pearl Harbour. It is looking as though Australia will need to make a choice between China and America rather soon.

China Vs United States – Why Australia Will Lose!


Before I go any further, let me explain my position. I am on the “Left” side of politics. An anti-war greenie ex-ALP member. Yet it matters little where I fit on the internal political landscape. What matters is where Australia fits on the international landscape. This post is not about party political differences. It is about our hidden Government. And no! I am not a diplomat. Just an amateur student of world affairs informed by the past and reading the omens.

Every nation in the world has one.

Secretive and mostly working in the shadows. A Government body making commitments and friendships with people we never hear about.

Only ever showing the results of its machinations and activities in the occasional public announcements of its head.

It is the most important department any nation can have.

No, it is not Treasury, the department we are always worried about. The one that determines how we shall live. No. This department is even more important.

It determines whether we SHALL live!

And by what rules.

In Australia it is known as the Department of Foreign Affairs. In the USA it is the State Department. China has its Ministry of Foreign Affairs!

All the secretive connivings and agreements are basically about trade. About how one nation can either enrich itself or at the very least, not be disadvantaged by a change in trading conditions. Those spy novels we were brought up on were not about a clash of cultures but about a clash of economic theories. Capitalism versus Communism.

The current test of strength between the US and China is still about trade. Determining which form of Capitalism will prevail.

We never see the back room battles. We are distracted by the Fleming and le Carré stories of human daredevilry and pathos.

In the back rooms, at the highest levels schemes and plans are put into place which will mature in a decade or a generation or, in extreme cases, in a century. Plans laid and executed by people we never see, never vote for. The truly faceless government.

We often hear of the threat of a One World Government.

The favourite of the conspiracy theorists. The bad news is that we have had one for centuries. While our individual national Treasuries are handled by relatively well known financial wizards and publicly elected treasurers under accepted Governmental oversight of one form or another, Foreign Affairs operates outside of and above the political hurly-burly. It is party-less and almost unaccountable.

The information it deals with puts our current Australian fixation with Thomson, Mirabella, Slipper and Pyne to shame. Diplomats need to know everything about everyone yet cannot admit to knowing anything. Which is why the Wikileaks’ dumping of huge numbers of confidential diplomatic emails was such a sin.

It is why Julian Assange will get no support from any Government in the world. Daniel Ellsberg only lifted the lid on his own country’s dealings. Assange has embarrassed the entire World Government. Which is why Gillard is so obdurate about not intervening and  helping him. Foreign Affairs has spoken! He must be turned into a horrible example. No one must be allowed to play with the levers of power, opening “Realpolitik“, as Henry Kissinger described it, to the public view.

We only see stuff-ups when they lead to a war. For, although they are a One World Government, there are still factions and alliances and the ultimate threat is not an election but armed conflict. Diplomats handle the day to day matters within a framework set by the real rulers of the world. To be the Foreign Minister of Australia or Britain, to be the Secretary of State of the USA, to be the equivalent in Russia or China is to be close to and beholden to the true holders of power. In recent times, Kevin Rudd has shown that he knows where the biggest game in the world is taking place.

Dictators and madmen sometimes come to power.

Not everything always goes to plan. Luckily, regardless of the self-perceived immortality of these international irritants, they are as mortal as the rest of us. Yet they can create disturbances in international relations. I first saw a fictional account of this in the incident of the “Mule” in Isaac Azimov’s Foundation Series. Six hundred years into a thousand year galactic history which had been planned and predicted by a social engineer, a rogue element appeared. He appeared to totally derail the pre-laid plans yet, after his death, everything settled back into its predicted course.

Foreign Affairs is similar. Madmen and dictators may create ripples which appear to be overwhelming and miscalculations may cause huge wars with incalculable human tragedies yet somehow civilisation continues on. Hitler, Pol Pot and Kim Il Sung will be as irrelevant as the Ayatollahs when our descendants look at the sweep of history. The long range plans of the World Government will continue.

The Great War was begun almost by accident.

We saw a miscalculation early last century which resulted in two major wars and we may be seeing similar miscalculation now.

An Arch Duke was assassinated in a remote European State and, through a complicated network of treaties, the long-established British Empire and the newly-growing Germany went to war. In a lot of ways the so-called Second World War was simply a continuation of the Great War.

Over the past weeks there have been oil-field difficulties between China and long-term US ally, the Phillipines. In fact, China claims sovereignty over a large U-shaped area of the South China Sea, bringing it into dispute with several neighbouring countries. In recent months it has grown more assertive over the issue. Through a century-old treaty, the USA must come to the aid of the Phillipines.

There is a potential conflict ahead.

Between Australia’s long-term ally and its new-found giant trading partner.

With hundreds of ships plying the seas between Chinese ports and Australian mining ports and with a newly negotiated US Marine base in Darwin, along with other US bases within this island nation, the potential for spill-over of any conflict, verbal or actual, between the fading old and the growing new Superpowers must involve Australia.

We are too small to ignore the demands of the US. Yet we are too important a supplier of raw materials to China for them to allow us to become simply a US base in a potentially “hot” conflict.

Put into this context announcements by President Obama last year have an ominous import for Australia.

In the game of chess there is a situation known as Zugzwang. A player whose turn it is to move who has no move that does not worsen his position is said to be in zugzwang.

Australia’s foreign Affairs Department has successfully negotiated us into Zugzwang. We must make a move and whatever move we make, we must lose!

Forget about changing the situation by changing the Minister. He is always helpless, regardless of era, party or desires! He is a prisoner of the true rulers of Australia.

All we can do is sit and wait.

And worry about our children.

The Dust of Uruzgan


Here in Australia we sing songs of the warriors who fight the wars our Government chooses.

The memorable songs are not just of the war but of the men who fight in them and then have to live with the consequences. They tend to be against the wars yet are incredibly sympathetic to the men who fight in them.

Firstly Eric Bogle sang this tribute to the men of WW1

Then Redgum sang this John Schumann tale of Vietnam

Now Fred Smith has written and sung of the eleventh digger to die in Afghanistan.

A worthy addition to the Aussie songbook of the lost and ruined lives in wars “Over There”.

In the ring they called me “Warlord”, my mother calls me Paul
You can call me Private Warren when you’re filing your report
As to how I came to be here this is what I understand
In this hospital in Germany from the Dust of Uruzgan

I had just turned 28, just bought a new car
When I joined the first Battalion of the Big One RAR
We were next up for deployment into south Afghanistan
To combat the insurgence in the Dust of Uruzgan

It took seven months of training just to get into the joint
There were pushups and procedures there was death by power point
Then the RSOI course in Ali Al Salaam
But nothing can prepare you for the Dust of Uruzgan

Me and Benny sat together flying into Kandahar
Sucked back on our near beers in the Camp Baker Bar
Then up at 0530 we were on the Herc and out
Twenty flying minutes we were in to Tarin Kowt

We shook hands as the boys RIPped out from MRTF 1
And pretty soon were out patrolling in the Afghan summer sun
Walking through the green zone with a Styer in my hand
Body armor chafing through the dust of Uruzgan

We started up near Chora working 14 hours a day
Mentoring a Kandak from the Afghan 4th brigade
Down through the Baluchi into eastern Dorafshan
Working under open skies in the dust of Uruzgan

It’s a long way from Townsville not like any place you’ll see
Like suddenly you’re walking through from the 14th century
Women under burkhas, tribal warlords rule a land
Full of goats, and huts and jingle trucks is the Dust of Uruzgan

And the Education Minister can neither read nor write
And Minister for Women runs the knock shop here at night
They’ve been fighting here forever over water, food and land
Murdering each other in the dust of Uruzgan

There’s nothing about this province that’s remotely fair or just
worse than the corruption is the endless f#*%!ing dust
Its as fine as talcum powder on the ground and in the air
And it gets in to your eyes and it gets in to your hair

And it gets in to your weapon and it gets in to your boots
When bureaucrats all show up here it gets in to their suits
It gets in the machinery and foils every plan
There’s something quite symbolic bout the Dust of Uruzgan

Still the people can be gracious and they’re funny and they’re smart
And When the children look into your eyes they walk into your heart
They face each day with courage and each year without a plan
Beyond scratching for survival in the Dust of Uruzgan

But the Taliban are ruthless keep the people terrorized
With roadside bombs and  hangings and leaving letters in the night
And they have no useful vision for the children of this land
But to keep them praying on their knees in the Dust of Uruzgan

It was a quiet Saturday morning when the 2 Shop made a call
On a compound of interest to the east of COP Mashal
We had some information they were building IED’s
So we cordoned and we searched it in accord with SOPs

I was on the west flank picket, propped there with Ben
there to keep a watchful eye out while the other blokes went in
We looked for signs of danger from the TTPs we’d learned
But the Nationals were moving back and forth without concern

We’d been standing still for hours when I took a quick step back
Kicked a small AP mine, and everything went black
Woke up on a gurney  flat out on my back
had to ask them seven times just to get the facts

That I lived to tell the story through a simple twist of fate
The main charge lay ten feet away from the pressure plate
You see the mine was linked by det chord to a big charge laid by hand
Hidden there under Benny by the Dust of Uruzgan

I was a Queensland Champ Thai Boxer now I look south of my knee
And all I see is bed sheets were my right foot used to be
Benny’s dead and buried underneath Australian sand
But his spirits out there wandering through the Dust, the Dust of Uruzgan

Now I’m going back to Townsville it’s the city of my birth
Some go back to Ballarat and some go back to Perth
I’ll be living with my mother who’s still trying to understand
Why we’re spending blood and treasure in the Dust of Uruzgan

(For more about Fred Smith read here)

With thanks to @jonkudelka who twittered the original article. The poor verbiage in this post is all mine.

Teabaggers Rule


Here is proof that Glenn Beck and Sarah Palin are right.

Unlike those deluded Boston Teapartiers who wanted taxation with representation, we Tea Baggers want Representation WITHOUT taxation.

Except for war.

I want 100% of the taxes I pay to go to support our wars.

It’s what the Bible wants. It’s what God wants. It’s what I want.

Edward Current deserves to be the next President of the United States.

Sarah Palin needs to get back in the kitchen and start making sandwiches and apple pie for the victory celebrations.

God and Reality


War


I stopped off at Max’s blog last night.Possibly the smartest move I have made for months.

Suddenly the reason for my lack of life satisfaction became clear.

I need to get some genuine protest time back into my life. Instead of just bottling up my annoyance at the stupidities of our leaders I need to speak the words, march the marches and blog the bleeding obvious.

This was what I found on the blog of the Celluloid Blonde.

Which segued into Buffy Saint Marie.

A different war, the same lemming-like acceptance of its necessity as told sold to us by our oh-so-perfect leaders.

It’s Not Religion


not_religion1

To balance the apparent recent anti-Catholic leanings of the archive, here is a comment on the other two major desert religions.

Thanks for pointing me in the direction of “atheist cartoons”, Mike.

A Rant on Terror


Terrorism is such a bad thing that all terrorists should be punished. It would probably be best if they were all killed before they could cause any damage to us.

The problem is that terrorism is like the Hydra. Cut off a few heads and they not only grow back, they multiply. The end result is even more terrorists.

So the current method of attempting to control, reduce and eradicate terrorism is obviously failing.

Just what is terrorism?

At its base, terrorism is the means which some people, yes, terrorists are people too, use to gain political power. It is not to be confused with the individual, random acts committed by the suicidal and mentally ill who suddenly run right off the rails.

The true terrorist leader is older, much more calculating and hides in the background. He uses the very inequalities he seeks to overcome to recruit followers. Whatever his background or origin, his aim is to over throw the status quo creating a new status quo where he is the leader.

A terrorist organisation needs to be looked at as a political organisation.

Just as it would be impossible to eliminate the Democrats or the Republicans in the USA, or the Labour Party or the Tories in Britain, so it is impossible to eliminate the terrorists once they have created  themselves in a country.

Why? Because they represent an ideal, an idea!

Controlling Terrorism.

Terrorism gains its power from using violence as opposed to the ballot box. Modern terrorism gains its members from the disaffected young. The very people who are at their most idealistic and ready to try to change their world. These young people are the lifeblood of the terrorist leadership.

There are two ways of dealing with the disaffected young.

We can try to control them after they have become disaffected or we can stop them from becoming disaffected.

Our current method of attempting to put the genie back in the bottle is obviously failing. The world has become a much more dangerous place since all out war against terrorism was declared. The disaffected young have multiplied in the resultant chaos and have gathered at the banner of the terrorist leaderships.

Another course of action.

Perhaps what is needed is a total redefining of the problem.

Rather than using the old Biblical, and totally human, reaction of an eye for an eye, perhaps the Christian ideal of “turning the other cheek” may be of use. It has certainly never been tried on a mass level.

Maybe the nations of the world should stop the war on terror and concentrate on creating a world where there are no disaffected youth. Cut off the terrorist leadership and isolate them from their powerbase.

A Sort of Conclusion

Could the cost of improving the conditions in places where terrorism is growing be more than the continuing cost of the wars to control terrorism?

Certainly the methods used by our nations is not working.

A change in direction may just create the conditions needed to reduce, if not eliminate, the threat of terrorism.

The real problem is that there are those in power in our nations who would see the proposal of this solution as a new form of terrorism.

Armistice Day, November 11th


Poppy Day.

Remembrance Day

The eleventh day of the eleventh month.

When the first big war of the twentieth century ended.

Poppies

This is for Edward Russell (Ted) Bates who died in battle in France on 1st June, 1918, aged 30. My Great Uncle.

It is also for my parents who both took part in WW2 and for Colin, a cousin and Jeff, a friend who both did the Vietnam thing. And for Graham, who left both legs in Vietnam and returned to enter Parliament to help make a difference. Matthew Locke and David Pearce are also remembered.
And for all those others who either died or had something inside them die in the service of Australia.

Especially for those currently in Iraq, Afghanistan, East Timor, The Solomon Islands and the other trouble spots where Australian troops are helping.

For returning home is not the end of war.

Mum and Dad and Denny saw the passing out parade at Puckapunyal
(It was a long march from cadets).
The sixth battalion was the next to tour and it was me who drew the card.
We did Canungra and Shoalwater before we left.

And Townsville lined the footpath as we marched down to the quay.
This clipping from the paper shows us young and strong and clean.
And there’s me in my slouch hat with my SLR and greens.
God help me, I was only nineteen.

From Vung Tau riding Chinooks to the dust at Nui Dat,
I’d been in and out of choppers now for months.
But we made our tents a home. VB and pinups on the lockers,
And an Asian orange sunset through the scrub.

And can you tell me, doctor, why I still can’t get to sleep?
And night time’s just a jungle dark and a barking M-16?
And what’s this rash that comes and goes, can you tell me what it means?
God help me, I was only nineteen.

A four week operation, when each step can mean your last one
On two legs: it was a war within yourself.
But you wouldn’t let your mates down ’til they had you dusted off,
So you closed your eyes and thought about something else.

Then someone yelled out “Contact”, and the bloke behind me swore.
We hooked in there for hours, then a God almighty roar.
Frankie kicked a mine the day that mankind kicked the moon.
God help me, he was going home in June.

And I can still see Frankie, drinking tinnies in the Grand Hotel
On a thirty-six hour rec leave in Vung Tau.
And I can still hear Frankie, lying screaming in the jungle.
‘Till the morphine came and killed the bloody row.

And the Anzac legends didn’t mention mud and blood and tears.
And stories that my father told me never seemed quite real
I caught some pieces In my back that I didn’t even feel.
God help me, I was only nineteen.

And can you tell me, doctor, why I still can’t get to sleep?
And why the Channel Seven chopper chills me to my feet?
And what’s this rash that comes and goes, can you tell me what it means?
God help me, I was only nineteen.

The song as sung by the Australian Band, “Redgum” -The MP3 is 633.03Kb and plays for 3:55 minutes – ©Copyright Date Unknown by John Schuman

For those who are missing the Aussie slang and references.

  • Puckapunyal, Conungra, Shoalwater: Australian Army training bases
  • Townsville: City in Queensland and major Army Barracks
  • SLR: 7.62mm Self Loading Rifle – standard Army weapon of the era
  • greens: Jungle green uniform
  • VB: Victoria Bitter – an Australian brand of beer
  • tinnies: Cans of beer
  • rec leave: recreation leave
  • Anzac: Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
  • Channel Seven: An Australian Television Network

Poppies

For Today, 25th October


WESTMORELAND. O that we now had here
But one ten thousand of those men in England
That do no work to-day!

KING HENRY V. What’s he that wishes so?
My cousin Westmoreland? No, my fair cousin;
If we are mark’d to die, we are enow
To do our country loss; and if to live,
The fewer men, the greater share of honour.
God’s will! I pray thee, wish not one man more.
By Jove, I am not covetous for gold,
Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost;
It yearns me not if men my garments wear;
Such outward things dwell not in my desires.
But if it be a sin to covet honour,
I am the most offending soul alive.
No, faith, my coz, wish not a man from England.
God’s peace! I would not lose so great an honour
As one man more methinks would share from me
For the best hope I have. O, do not wish one more!
Rather proclaim it, Westmoreland, through my host,
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart; his passport shall be made,
And crowns for convoy put into his purse;
We would not die in that man’s company
That fears his fellowship to die with us.
This day is call’d the feast of Crispian.
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home,
Will stand a tip-toe when this day is nam’d,
And rouse him at the name of Crispian.
He that shall live this day, and see old age,
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours,
And say ‘To-morrow is Saint Crispian.’
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars,
And say ‘These wounds I had on Crispian’s day.’
Old men forget; yet all shall be forgot,
But he’ll remember, with advantages,
What feats he did that day. Then shall our names,
Familiar in his mouth as household words-
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester-
Be in their flowing cups freshly rememb’red.
This story shall the good man teach his son;
And Crispin Crispian shall ne’er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remembered-
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers;
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother; be he ne’er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition;
And gentlemen in England now-a-bed
Shall think themselves accurs’d they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin’s day.

.

Or was it October 15th under the Julian Calendar? Inquiring minds need to know.

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Damned Republicans


Volunteers.

G. royal-crest.jpg R.III.

 

God Save the King.

Let us, who are Englishmen,

 

 

protect and defend our good

 

 

KING and COUNTRY

 

 

against all the Attempts of all Republicans and Levellers

and against the designs of our NATURAL ENEMIES,

who intend in this Year to invade OLD ENGLAND,

our happy Country, to murder our gracious KING as they have done their own;

to make WHORES of our Wives and Daughters;

to rob us of our Property, and teach us nothing but the

damn’d Art of murdering one another.

ROYAL TARS

OF OLD ENGLAND

If you love your COUNTRY, and your LIBERTY,

now is the Time to shew your Love.

REPAIR

All who have good Hearts,

who love their KING, their COUNTRY,

and RELIGION,

who hate the FRENCH, and damn the POPE

TO

Lieut. W. J. Stephens,

At his Rendezvous, SHOREHAM,

Where they will be allowed

to Enter for any SHIP OF WAR,

AND THE FOLLOWING

BOUNTIES will be given

by his MAJESTY,

in Addition to Two Months Advance.

 

To Able Seaman, Five Pounds.

To Ordinary Seaman,Two Pound Ten Shillings.

To Landmen, Thirty Shillings.

Conduct-Money paid to go by Land,

and their Chests and Bedding sent Carriage free.

Those Men who have served as PETTY-OFFICERS,

and those who are otherwise qualified, will be recommended accordingly.

______________________________

LEWES : PRINTED BY W. AND A. LEE

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